various offices use basic software's like Office Word, Spread Sheet, presentation and E-Mail solutions for communications.
many organization's may use proprietary software's because they are cheap and customized for use in organization. This may create a situation where org's may end up with multiple packages from different tech co's . This is all good while the whole thing is new.
With time challenges like scaling of technology and integration of data is arises. Also top management needs integrated trend reports which can not be easily compiled from these disparate silos.
Hence arises the need for ERP packages. These are costly but can handle large amount of data efficiently and reports can be easily generated. But some amount of BPR may be required for implementing these. Also cost of failure is high, hence lot of factors like Change management needs to be taken into account.
Next comes related technologies like SCM, CRM et al. These arte required to manage customers and suppliers respectively. Smooth oprational efficiencies and cost savings result, but then all these work as Silio's with the ERP system.
Thus the need for Business Intelligence and Analytics to pull information from all these sources and compile them in useful form for the management to draw insights.